by AndrewMc | 10/26/2009 05:00:00 AM
This topic is neither exclusively progressive, nor particularly confined to historical study, per se. But is it important.

October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, and the fourth Monday in October is usually designated Breast Cancer Awareness Day. The likelihood is strong that everyone who reads this entry knows someone who has had breast cancer, or has had it themselves.

Follow me below for some statistics on breast cancer.

From the National Cancer Institute (NCI):

In 2009 there will be approximately:

  • New cases: 192,370 (female); 1,910 (male)
  • Deaths: 40,170 (female); 440 (male)

The NCI publishes an online booklet about breast cancer that covers everything from the fundamentals of the biology of a breast to how to detect breast cancer to the various kinds of treatments. I recommend reading through it.

Some risk factors:

Studies have found the following risk factors for breast cancer:

Age: The chance of getting breast cancer increases as you get older. Most women are over 60 years old when they are diagnosed.

* Personal health history: Having breast cancer in one breast increases your risk of getting cancer in your other breast. Also, having certain types of abnormal breast cells (atypical hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS], or ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]) increases the risk of invasive breast cancer. These conditions are found with a breast biopsy.

* Family health history: Your risk of breast cancer is higher if your mother, father, sister, or daughter had breast cancer. The risk is even higher if your family member had breast cancer before age 50. Having other relatives (in either your mother's or father's family) with breast cancer or ovarian cancer may also increase your risk.

* Certain genome changes: Changes in certain genes, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, substantially increase the risk of breast cancer. Tests can sometimes show the presence of these rare, specific gene changes in families with many women who have had breast cancer, and health care providers may suggest ways to try to reduce the risk of breast cancer or to improve the detection of this disease in women who have these genetic changes.

Also, researchers have found specific regions on certain chromosomes that are linked to the risk of breast cancer. If a woman has a genetic change in one or more of these regions, the risk of breast cancer may be slightly increased. The risk increases with the number of genetic changes that are found. Although these genetic changes are more common among women than BRCA1 or BRCA2, the risk of breast cancer is far lower.

* Radiation therapy to the chest: Women who had radiation therapy to the chest (including the breasts) before age 30 are at an increased risk of breast cancer. This includes women treated with radiation for Hodgkin lymphoma. Studies show that the younger a woman was when she received radiation treatment, the higher her risk of breast cancer later in life.

* Reproductive and menstrual history:

o The older a woman is when she has her first child, the greater her chance of breast cancer.
o Women who never had children are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
o Women who had their first menstrual period before age 12 are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
o Women who went through menopause after age 55 are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
o Women who take menopausal hormone therapy for many years have an increased risk of breast cancer.

* Race: In the United States, breast cancer is diagnosed more often in white women than in African American/black, Hispanic/Latina, Asian/Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native women.

* Breast density: Breasts appear on a mammogram (breast x-ray) as having areas of dense and fatty (not dense) tissue. Women whose mammograms show a larger area of dense tissue than the mammograms of women of the same age are at increased risk of breast cancer.

* History of taking DES: DES was given to some pregnant women in the United States between about 1940 and 1971. (It is no longer given to pregnant women.) Women who took DES during pregnancy may have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer. The possible effects on their daughters are under study.

* Being overweight or obese after menopause: The chance of getting breast cancer after menopause is higher in women who are overweight or obese.

* Lack of physical activity: Women who are physically inactive throughout life may have an increased risk of breast cancer.

* Drinking alcohol: Studies suggest that the more alcohol a woman drinks, the greater her risk of breast cancer.

Having a risk factor does not mean that a woman will get breast cancer. Most women who have risk factors never develop breast cancer.

Many other possible risk factors have been studied. For example, researchers are studying whether women who have a diet high in fat or who are exposed to certain substances in the environment have an increased risk of breast cancer. Researchers continue to study these and other possible risk factors.

Some organizations dedicating to helping to find a cure:

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Blogger Ahistoricality on 10/30/2009 10:11 AM:

I've been trying to find a way to put this into some historical perspective. I suppose we were due for a new wave of anti-disease activism after the Lance Armstrong surge died out, and the Komen foundation in particular has been building steam on this for years.

Seems to me that we'd do more good promoting/lobbying for greater government investment in scientific research than fundraising through pink shopping bags and 10k publicity stunts.